16.2 Target populations

TST or IGRA cannot predict which patients with LTBI are likely to develop active TB. Therefore, widespread LTBI testing and treatment are not recommended.

However, in certain populations, the risk of progression to active TB significantly exceeds that of the general population. For these at-risk populations, the benefits of LTBI treatment of preventing active TB and TB transmission outweigh the potential risks.

Populations who benefit most from LTBI treatment include:

  • HIV-infected individuals.
  • Household contacts of patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB (PTB), in particular children under 5 years.
  • Other individuals or populations at risk (e.g. healthcare workers, prisoners).