12.1 HIV testing and counselling for patients known or suspected to have TB

HIV testing is recommended for all patients with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB), whether TB is suspected or already confirmed. HIV testing should be offered as part of an “opt out” approach, which means the patients will have to specifically decline the HIV test after receiving the pre-test counselling if they do not want the test performed.

HIV-infected TB patients may have household members who are also living with HIV. Testing for HIV is recommended in immediate family members where horizontal or vertical transmission may have occurred.