14.1 Introduction

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    Tuberculosis infection prevention and control (TB-IPC) consists of a combination of 3 types of measures [1] Citation 1. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on tuberculosis infection prevention and control, 2019 update, Geneva; 2019. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

    • Administrative measures
    • Environmental measures
    • Respiratory protection measures


    The aim of these measures is to reduce the risk of exposure to M. tuberculosis in health staff, patients, attendants, visitors and household members in contact with an infectious or potentially infectious person.


    Box 14.1 – Potential for TB transmission based on patient characteristics


    Infectious: patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) untreated, or not treated with an effective treatment, or treated with an effective treatment for less than 2 weeks.


    Potentially infectious: patients pending TB diagnosis.


    Non-infectious: patients with both smear- and culture-negative PTB, including those who have smear and culture converted, patients with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) without concomitant PTB, most children.