Phenotypic DST determines if a strain is resistant to an anti-TB drug by evaluating the growth (or metabolic activity) in the presence of the drug8. The laboratory performing phenotypic DST should be specialised in mycobacterial cultures, reliable and subject to external quality assessment, often by a supranational laboratory or national reference laboratory.
The turn around time (TAT) for these techniques is summarized in Section 3.5, Table 3.1.
The reliability of DST varies from one drug to another. For Group 1 anti-TB drugs, DST is very reliable for rifampicin and isoniazid but less so for pyrazinamide and much less for ethambutol. DST for aminoglycosides, polypeptides and fluoroquinolones have been tested in different laboratories and shown to have relatively good reliability and reproducibility. DST to other second-line drugs (para aminosalicylic acid, ethionamide and cycloserine) is much less reliable and reproducible9.