Fever

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    Fever is defined as an axillary temperature higher than or equal to 37.5 °C.

    Fever is frequently due to infection. In a febrile patient, first look for signs of serious illness then, try to establish a diagnosis.

    Signs of severity

    • Severe tachycardia, tachypnoea, respiratory distress, SpO2 ≤ 90%.
    • Shock, altered mental status, petechial or purpuric rash, meningeal signs, seizures, heart murmur, severe abdominal pain, dehydration, critically ill appearance a Citation a. Critically ill appearing child: weak grunting or crying, drowsiness, difficult to arrouse, does not smile, unconjugate or anxious gaze, pallor or cyanosis, general hypotonia. ; a bulging fontanel in young children.

    Infectious causes of fever according to localizing symptoms

    Signs or symptoms

    Possible aetiology

    Meningeal signs, seizures

    Meningitis/meningoencephalitis/severe malaria

    Abdominal pain or peritoneal signs

    Appendicitis/peritonitis/typhoid fever

    Diarrhoea, vomiting

    Gastroenteritis/typhoid fever

    Jaundice, enlarged liver

    Viral hepatitis

    Cough

    Pneumonia/measles/tuberculosis if persistent

    Ear pain, red tympanic membrane

    Otitis media

    Sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes

    Streptococcal pharyngitis, diphtheria

    Dysuria, urinary frequency, back pain

    Urinary tract infection

    Red, warm, painful skin

    Erysipelas, cellulitis, abscess

    Limp, difficulty walking

    Osteomyelitis/septic arthritis

    Rash

    Measles/dengue/haemorrhagic fever/chikungunya

    Bleeding (petechiae, epistaxis, etc.)

    Dengue/haemorrhagic fever

    Joint pain

    Rheumatic fever/chikungunya/dengue

     

    • In endemic area, always consider malaria.
    • If the patient is ill appearing a Citation a. Critically ill appearing child: weak grunting or crying, drowsiness, difficult to arrouse, does not smile, unconjugate or anxious gaze, pallor or cyanosis, general hypotonia. and has a persistent fever, consider HIV infection and tuberculosis, according to clinical presentation.

    Laboratory and other examinations

    • Children less than 2 months with a temperature higher than or equal to 37.5 °C without a focus:
      • Urinary dipstick;
      • Lumbar puncture (LP) if child less than 1 month or if any of the following: meningeal signs, coma, seizures, critically ill appearance a Citation a. Critically ill appearing child: weak grunting or crying, drowsiness, difficult to arrouse, does not smile, unconjugate or anxious gaze, pallor or cyanosis, general hypotonia. , failure of prior antibiotic therapy, suspicion of staphylococcal infection;
      • Chest X-Ray (if available) in case of signs of respiratory disease.
    • Children 2 months to 3 years with a temperature higher than or equal to 38 °C without a focus:
      • Urine dipstick;
      • White blood cell count (WBC) if available;
      • LP if meningeal signs.
    • Children over 3 years and adults with a temperature higher than or equal to 39 °C:

    According to clinical presentation.

    Aetiological treatment

    • Antibiotherapy according to the cause of fever.
    • For patients with sickle cell disease, see Sickle cell disease, Chapter 12.
    • If no source of infection is found, hospitalise and treat the following children with empiric antibiotics:
      • Children less than 1 month;
      • Children 1 month to 3 years with WBC ≥ 15000 or ≤ 5000 cells/mm3;
      • All critically ill appearing a Citation a. Critically ill appearing child: weak grunting or crying, drowsiness, difficult to arrouse, does not smile, unconjugate or anxious gaze, pallor or cyanosis, general hypotonia.  patients or those with signs of serious illness;

    For antibiotic doses according to age, see Acute pneumonia, Chapter 2.

    Symptomatic treatment

    • Undress the patient. Do not wrap children in wet towels or cloths (not effective, increases discomfort, risk of hypothermia).
    • Antipyretics may increase the patient’s comfort but they do not prevent febrile convulsions. Do not treat for more than 3 days with antipyretics.

    paracetamol PO 
    Children less than 1 month: 10 mg/kg 3 to 4 times daily (max. 40 mg/kg daily)
    Children 1 month and over: 15 mg/kg 3 to 4 times daily (max. 60 mg/kg daily)
    Adults: 1 g 3 to 4 times daily (max. 4 g daily)
    or
    ibuprofen PO
    Children over 3 months and < 12 years: 5 to 10 mg/kg 3 to 4 times daily (max. 30 mg/kg daily)
    Children 12 years and over and adults: 200 to 400 mg 3 to 4 times daily (max. 1200 mg daily)
    or
    acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) PO
    Children over 16 years and adults: 500 mg to 1 g 3 to 4 times daily (max. 4 g daily)

    Prevention of complications

    • Encourage oral hydration. Continue frequent breastfeeding in infants.
    • Look for signs of dehydration.
    • Monitor urine output.

     

    Notes:

    • In pregnant or breast-feeding women use paracetamol only.
    • In case of haemorrhagic fever and dengue: acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen are contraindicated; use paracetamol with caution in the presence of hepatic dysfunction.

     

    Footnotes
    • (a) Critically ill appearing child: weak grunting or crying, drowsiness, difficult to arrouse, does not smile, unconjugate or anxious gaze, pallor or cyanosis, general hypotonia.