ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE (OPV)

The bivalent vaccine bOPV replaces the trivalent vaccine tOPV (poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3).


Indications

– Prevention of poliomyelitis, in combination with the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV)

Composition, forms, route of administration

– Live-attenuated virus vaccine, bivalent (poliovirus types 1 and 3)
– Oral suspension in multidose vial, to be administered on the tongue, with dropper

Dosage and vaccination schedule

One dose = 2 drops (approximately 0.1 ml)

– In endemic areas or areas at risk of poliovirus importation, according to WHO recommendations
Child: 4 doses approximately 4 weeks apart, at birth then at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age
The 4th dose at 14 weeks is administered in combination with a dose of the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV).

– Other areas
Child: 3 doses approximately 4 weeks apart, at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age
The 3rd dose at 14 weeks is administered in combination with a dose of the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV).

Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions

– Do not administer in the event of severe immunodepression (risk of paralytic poliomyelitis): use the injectable vaccine IPV (asymptomatic HIV infection is not a contra-indication).
– Vaccination should be postponed in the event of severe acute febrile illness (minor infections are not contra-indications).
– May cause (exceptionally): paralytic poliomyelitis.
– In the event of vomiting or diarrhoea when the vaccine is administered, give the usual dose followed by an extra dose once gastrointestinal symptoms have improved.
– Respect an interval of at least 4 weeks between each dose.
Pregnancy: no contra-indication
Breast-feeding: no contra-indication

Remarks

– Protection against poliomyelitis lasts for life after 3 doses.
– In children who start routine vaccination late (after the age of 3 months), the dose of IPV is administered together with the 1st dose of bOPV, followed by 2 doses of bOPV alone administered 4 weeks apart.
– For the vaccination schedule, follow national recommendations.
– Monovalent oral type 2 vaccines (mOPV and nOPV) are also available but are exclusively used for responding to epidemics.
– Storage 
•  For prolonged storage: freeze (– 20 °C).

•  After defrosting: between 2 °C and 8 °C for 6 months maximum.