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Last updated: August 2021
- Vasodilator, antianginal
- Adjunctive therapy in acute heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema)
Forms and strengths, route of administration
- 10 mg in 10 ml ampoule (1 mg/ml), for slow IV injection or IV infusion in 5% glucose or 0.9% sodium chloride
- Adult: 2 mg (= 2 ml) by slow IV injection (2 minutes) then, if necessary, 2 to 10 mg/hour by continuous infusion with an electric syringe pump
- Monitor blood pressure during administration. The objective is to lower the systolic pressure to 120-150 mmHg and the diastolic pressure to under 110 mmHg.
Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions
- Do not administer to patients with obstructive cardiomyopathy, hypotension, shock, intracranial hypertension or neurologic injury.
- May cause:
- orthostatic hypotension (especially in older patients), headache, nausea, flushing of the face, haemolytic anaemia in patients with G6PD deficiency;
- severe hypotension with risk of circulatory collapse in the event of overdose.
- Avoid combination or use the lowest effective dose in patients taking another nitrate derivative, a vasodilator, a diuretic or an antihypertensive drug (enhances hypotensive effects), and in older patients.
- Do not combine with sildenafil or other drugs used for erectile dysfunction (risk of severe hypotension, syncope and acute coronary syndrome).
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding: avoid, use only if clearly needed (safety not established)
- Injectable isosorbide dinitrate is not included in the WHO list of essential medicines.
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